Saturday, March 14, 2020

Definition of Communism Essays - Socialism, Communism, Free Essays

Definition of Communism Essays - Socialism, Communism, Free Essays Colin S. Innes English 1A (083) 04/21/2015 Definition of Communism Many people might consider Communism as the root of all evil and perhaps the worst system of government. Countries like the United States have spent countless amount of time, effort and money to stop the spread and influence of Communism on the home soil and around the world. Despite freedom being mostly associated with democracy, the abuse of democracy rights could also lead to disastrous events. The most infamous event in the history of the United States in the 20th century was the McCarthyism which is also known as the Red Scare. The event can be considered as the 20th century witch hunt. The whole story happened when Joseph McCarthy was senator for the Republican party. Joseph Mccarthy accused thousands of Americans of being Communists. During the period of mid-20th century, communism is portrayed as the evil enemy of Americans. Many innocent American people were charged guilty and alienated from their community and some were even put into jails. Many famous Hollywood actors were also put into the Hollywood blacklist, which means they would not be able to go back to Hollywood anymore, despite the horrible fact that many assertions were pure speculations. Americas obsession with liberty and democracy ironically restricted individual freedom as much or more so than Communism in many other countries. However, there are many scenarios where Communism has largely benefited people on the other side of the world. The successful revolution of China can be a perfect example of how Communism can bring wealth and strength to the nation. Advocates of democracy might argue that the economic failure of both Cuba and Cambodia have been the result of blindly following the Communist system. The fact is, neither of the two countries have followed the true definition of Communism. Both countries leaders, Khmer Rouge and Ral Castro revolutionized their system to Authoritarianism. The importance of the Communist system should not always be viewed as a negative impact, but as th e alternative way to benefit other countries. Communism is a theory originated by a German Philosopher, Karl Marx. His idea is that everyone in the society receives equal amount of shares of the benefits by freeing all lower class of the society from poverty and shortening the gap between low and middle class people. This idea is implemented to help lower-class people to have the opportunity to rise up and have the same amount of profits as that of middle class people. Many Superpowers in the world such as the Peoples Republic of China and Russia are all based on the Communist system. Without the rule under Communism, both countries would probably be in total chaos. If people in the country had to provide food and shelter for themselves, many problems would appear such as poverty, starvation and diseases. The country survives through the help of government and is rising up dramatically both in terms of economy and peoples standard of living. Three aspects of Communism are what makes Communism different from other systems. Common ownership of property- replace private property and a profit-based economy with public ownership. Same social rank-which makes everyone in the society receive equal shares of the benefits. This also benefits the lower-class people to make more money and close the gap between the wealthy and the poor. Ownership of land by the government- all means of productions are controlled by the state. Common ownership of property is the single most important aspect of Communism. It means that all organizations,enterprises or communities are held indivisibly rather than individual members in the country. This aspect of Communism has created many more job opportunities for citizens in the country as well as stability for the nation itself. Because many developing countries such as China, Cuba and Vietnam do not have stable economies, by adopting the idea of Common ownership of property, it could dramatically decrease the risk of economic depression basically for three reasons. First, many people in the country usually do not have sufficient funds to open up their own businesses and many people could not purchase enough goods to meet the standard consumptions for their businesses. Thus, they are most likely to encounter hardships in the future. However,

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Physiology research paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Physiology - Research Paper Example The researchers selected 128 children of patients with autosomal-dominant Alzheimer’s disease as study participants, as they were at risk of carrying the mutation. The autosomal-dominant nature of the disease in these cases was determined by family pedigrees. The mutations known in these pedigrees included presenilin 1, presenilin 2, and amyloid precursor protein. The expected age of symptom onset for the participants was set as the age at which the parent was diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. They studied several physiologic mechanisms occurring in these patients. First, they carried out clinical assessments of cognitive change using questionnaire-based scales, giving them a cognition score. This characterized the participants as normal cognitive function, very mild impairment, or mild impairment. Brain imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was done to screen for any pre-existing brain disease. Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning was done to determine any regions of fibrillar amyloid deposition, and decreased metabolism. They also analyzed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for concentrations of tau, and beta-amyloid. They found that 50% of the asymptomatic study participants were carriers of the mutation for Alzheimer’s. The carriers had lower cognitive scores and at an earlier age, compared to non-carriers of the mutation. The carriers also developed bilateral hippocampal atrophy, seen on MRI, 15 years before expected symptom onset. Through PE scanning, they detected a selective decrease in the metabolism of the precuneus region of the brain in carriers, 10 years before expected symptom onset. Mutation carriers also had significant amyloid deposition in the precuneus region at 15 years before symptom onset, while non-carriers did not have any amyloid deposition there. Levels of CSF tau protein and plasma amyloid were elevated in the carriers 15 years before symptom onset,

Monday, February 10, 2020

The International Accounting Standards Board and it role in Essay

The International Accounting Standards Board and it role in harmonization of accountign standards - Essay Example One example is in the availing of depreciation. In the United Kingdom, depreciation is determined according to, "convention and pragmatism, rather than exact rules[determining] the method of depreciation, estimates of the scrap value and the expected length of life (Ferrari L 2005). Germany, on the other hand, lays down exact rules and regulations for all these aspects in detail, leaving no room for manipulation. There is thus a need to introduce common internationally accepted norms, which would minimize such differences. The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) is one such institution that has undertaken the responsibility of formulating such standards to remove the anomalies between the 'generally accepted accounting practices' of different countries, through a process of harmonization of accounting standards. The IASB was founded in April 2001, as a successor to the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC). The IASC was an independent body formed in 1973, with the broad objective of, " [furthering] harmonization of accounting practices through the formulation of accounting standards to promote their worldwide acceptance" (Encyclopedia of Business and Finance [EBF]). In May 2000, a new structure for the IASC was approved, leading to the establishment of the IASB. As per KEWL (Knowledge Environment of Web-based Learning), the main objectives of the IASB are: - Develop, in the public interest, a single set of high quality understandable and enforceable global accounting standards that require high quality transparent and capable information in financial statements and other financial reporting to help the participants in the various capital markets of the world and other users of the information to make economic decisions. Promote the use and rigorous application of those standards. Work actively with national standards-setters to bring convergence of national accounting standards and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) to high quality solution. In order to most objectively achieve the above aims, the organization of the IASB has been structured as follows (KEWL): - Trustees. Comprises of nineteen individuals from all geographical regions of the world, of whom at least five should represent the accounting profession. The primary responsibility of the Trustees is to appoint Board members, exercise oversight and raise funds for the organization. Board. Consists of fourteen individuals (twelve full time members and two part-time members) and has the sole responsibility of setting accounting standards in the form of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Standards Advisory Council (SAC). This is another body of experts from different geographical regions and functional backgrounds with expertise required to contribute to the formulation of accounting standards. There are about fifty members of the Council. International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC). This is a committee of the IASB that assists the IASB in establishing and improving standards of financial accounting and reporting for the benefit of users, preparers and auditors of financial statements. The IFRIC assists the IASB in achieving international convergence of accounting standards. The IASC had introduced 41 International Accounting Standards (IAS) during its tenure

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Management and Diversity Essay Example for Free

Management and Diversity Essay Susan Jackson states in Diversity in the Workplace: Human Resource Initiatives that, â€Å"Surveys of business leaders confirm the perception that interest in managing diversity successfully is widespread. In a study of 645 firms, 74% of the respondents were concerned about diversity, and of these about one-third felt that diversity effected corporate strategy.† This means that the majority of organizations feel diversity is important, and see the need to take action, however; implementing the process can be more difficult. This paper will outline a human resources strategic plan that includes diversity training for all employees to include managers and frontline staff. It will focus specific diversity training segments to address management’s perspectives, and will use a change model to persuade management to implement needed modifications to the organizations practices. This paper will also propose a brief training outline of diversity content. Finally, this paper will recommend a comprehensive method of evaluation to ensure the training will create the needed changes. Mark Winston states in The Importance of Leadership Diversity: The Relationship between Diversity and Organizational Success in the Academic Environment that, â€Å"Fostering diversity in organizations is generally considered a priority in relation to the increasing diverse population, as well as inequities, current unfairness, and underrepresented.† To have a diversity strategy that becomes a strategic part of organization it must align with the overall goals of the organization. Nagel, CEO for Cisco states in the Hewlett Associates Creating a Sustainable Inclusion and Diversity Strategy: Build on Your Company’s Goals and Strengths that, â€Å"This position of inclusion and diversity must be an integral part of the company’s key business goals, rather than an add-on whose value and cost constantly need to be justified. A successful and sustainable ID (inclusion and diversity) strategy cannot be built in a silo. Similarly, for ID to receive the organizational support required to achieve its goals, it needs to be represented and play a central role in decision-making at the highest level. To ensure that ID is integrated at every level of the company, not just an HR focus.† To have this strategy start at the top of the organization is critical to the success of the initiative. This would begin with the forming of an Inclusion and Diversity Council. This counsel would be led by the Vice President of Human Resources, and the members are all executive level positions that represent each component of the company. The goals for this council would be to develop the Inclusive and Diversity vision to align with the goals of the company, develop the strategy behind the diversity and inclusion, and the execution plan. This council would also start gathering data to begin employee network groups in which a ll employees have the opportunity to join. It would review and advocating policies that support an inclusive environment including training for all employees, and implement a metrics for measuring the impact of Inclusion and Diversity initiatives. Through creating this type of board for the organization places diversity as a top priority and demonstrates the seriousness of integrating diversity into the organization. This would also exhibit to the EEOC a good faith effort to inaugurate diversity into the company. Below the council would be an additional group of managers that are composed of different business segments and would each hold a leadership type position in the employee network group. This group of managers would be responsible for building a strategy and executing a plan to implement the council’s decisions. This would allow an additional team of employees be involved in the inclusion and diversity strategy. â€Å"Because ID goals are aligned with the overall business goals, ID initiatives have a greater i mpact than before and are seen as a company priority.† (Hewett, 2009). Through starting the diversity strategies at the top and including additional manager throughout the company shows that this initiative is not a fad and that it is being taken seriously. The council will begin the inclusion and diversity process and communicate to managers and the overview the hiring and team the employees that make up the organization. In addition to the council, managers that recruit and hire employees will go through interviewing skills and be required to have a diverse slate based upon the geographic location. Adding more diverse candidates to the interview process gives managers the opportunity to hire more diverse candidates if they are the most qualified for the position. Interviewing more diverse candidates, allows more opportunity to hire and retain a diverse workforce. This will lead to less discrimination lawsuits based on hiring and retaining more diversity within the organization. Another key point is developing and engaging the talent that the organizat ion currently has. This would include promotions of internal candidates. This type of development would include mentoring groups that could be utilized through the employee network groups. This would reach all levels of employees throughout the organization. Finally, there will be training for all employees in regards to diversity and inclusion, harassment, and stereotypes and biases. By training employees and holding then accountable for improper practices or behavior, helps the organization develop standards and omit any inappropriate behaviors. Through aligning diversity and inclusion with the company’s overall goals and including key leaders in the organization states that this is a high priority and is supported by the overall company. By engaging managers at different levels through employee network groups and having diverse slates in hiring practices allows the company to continue to grow in diversity and inclusion. Finally, providing training and policies in place to encompass all employees gives everyone the understanding of what behavior is acceptable and that the work environment is inclusion for everyone. There can be a variety of reasons that managers or employees would resist change. According to the article, Workplace Diversity: How to Tackle Resistance it states, â€Å"Employees resist diversity for a number of reasons; if the organization’s definition of diversity is not broad enough and inclusive, some employees may feel excluded or left out of the change process. Furthermore, employees who are not often made to feel included in the process, such as white men, may feel blamed for inequities in their organization and react with defensiveness. On the other hand, employees specifically included in diversity efforts such as women or people of color- may express resistance because they do not want to be singled out or perceived as having succeeded purely as a result of the change effort. Finally, employees are also cynical and reluctant to get involved with new diversity efforts when past change efforts have not been successful.† To address the managers that would be implementing these practices I would first start with training the understanding of the alignment of diversity with the organizational goals. This would include ten session training about diversity and the way that it effects the organization. Through establishing and defining the organization’s definition of diversity and how it will help the company grow would help the managers understand the company initiative and that the top leaders of the organization are implementing and enforcing this program. It would also allow the managers to understand diversity and the components of it. The second training would entail having a diverse slate to interview, interviewing candidates, and selecting the best talent. â€Å"One common misperception is the belief that unearned benefits or advantages will be given to a specific group, such as white women, or people of color; as well as that one has to part of a specific group in order to be promoted.â €  (Catalyst, 2009). Through understanding the correct interview process, having a diverse number of candidates for promotion or hiring, and asking job related questions will allow the organization to continue to build on diversity and inclusion and train as well as show the managers the correct hiring process. The third training would allow the manager to understand and analyze their own stereotypes and biases. Through identifying that everyone, absolutely everyone has stereotype and biases, allows the manager to identify them and then look past them. This would help with the fair treatment of all employees. All three of these training sessions, understanding diversity, interview with diversity, and understanding stereotypes and biases will allow the company to continue to grow in diversity and inclusion. The organization will also be in compliance with sound hiring practices and treatment of employees including harassment. Dr. John Kotter’s 8-Step change model is one that can be utilized to impl ement and explain the change in the organization’s diversity and inclusion. According to the article The development of a model to support synchronous change, Kotter’s eight steps are: create a sense of urgency, form a powerful coalition, create a vision for change, communicate the vision, remove obstacles, create short term wins, build on the change, and anchor the changes in corporate culture. The first step is to create a sense of urgency. In this case the urgency has already been put in place by the charges faced by the EEOC. Due to the charges the organization must put a plan into effect quickly; this will be vital to the success of the organization. In step two, formulating a coalition, this can be done through establishing the diversity council in which key leaders will initiate the beginning of the diversity and inclusion component of the company. This will help the organization to all be on the same page and implement a strategy from the top. The third step includes the vision for change. This is done through aligning the goals of the organiz ation to the goals of diversity. This part of the plan would create goals such as meeting diversity goals, creating an inclusive environment, and training goals for the employees. Creating a work environment that is diverse as well as inclusive is an ideal work environment. Step four, communicate the vision, can be accomplished through the trainings conducted with the managers. These trainings would explain the diversity goals of the organization and have the frontline staff complete 5 diversity training sessions, and manager complete 10 diversity training sessions. In addition to the training, the managers should have constant open and honest communication about the changes that are happening and how those changes are effecting the organization. The fifth step, removing obstacles, would need to be in place when the employees are resisting the changes. Removing obstacles is part of the overall plan in which resistance comes up it is addressed immediately and allows the organization continue to build on its strategy. This fifth step is important in which managers that are following the diversity vision are rewarded and those that are not a redirected to follow the guidelines in place. This came be done by offering diversity bonuses based on having a diverse hiring slate, but not by hiring the most diverse candidates. The important part is still hiring the best candidates, but having a variety of candidates to choose from. The sixth step, create short-term wins, allows the employees to process and be successful in intervals. This would include reaching goals such as completing training, and having the correct amount of people to interview to complete a diverse slate. Step seven, build on the change, allow employees to celebrate the small successes that will then lead to additional wins of having a diverse and inclusive work environment. Finally, the eighth step, anchor the changes in corporate culture, is the complete process in which the changes are adapted to the culture of the organization. This is when the new staff as well as the old staff has accepted the culture and ensures that the changes continue. Each component of Kotter’s eight step process is important and necessary to achieve success. This plan of implementing change in accordance with the eight steps lays the foundation for the organization to make a positive change and provide a more diverse and inclusive work place. Described previously there were would be diversity training composed of ten (10) sessions. These sessions are based off of the Workplace Diversity Foreword, Managing Workplace Diversity. The first five sessions would be for both frontline employees and managers. The remaining sessions six to ten would be for managers only. The first session would entail an understanding of what diversity is. Although diversity can be different to each individual, this would focus on the defining diversity, giving history of the organizations diversity, and legal overview. The second training session would explain what stereotypes are as well as biases. In the course participant would identify their own biases through active listening. Once the biases and stereotypes are identified, the third session would include breaking down your own biases through changing how the participants view their approach and the encouraging workplace and social changes. The fourth lesson would then identifying the proper communication stating that listening and hearing are two different things. This would help open up communication among all individuals to incorporate an all-inclusive environment. Lesson five would explain body language and it is not what you say, but how you say it. This would allow employees as well as managers to understand that there is more to communication than just words. The sixth training would encourage diversity in the workplace through establishing guidelines and teaching employees about preventing discrimination. The seventh training would entail identifying discrimination and the options in which an employee or manager would have if this happened. The eight training would explain the processes used if you as a manager are involved in a complaint, understanding the role that you play as a manager that represents the company as well as an individual. The ninth training would teach the manager how to properly document the complaint and identify the appropriate actions including contacting the human resources department. The tenth training would explain the steps in receiving the complaint formally as then looking back at the incident and learning from the experience. All ten of these trainings, establish the guidelines that the organization is looking to enforce and support. Each component both explains and defines what diversity is, how it is involved in the day to day work environment, and how to prevent as well as respond to a complaint. Once all of the trainings are completed managers as well as employees will understand the overall goals of the company, how diversity plays a role in those goals, how each employee and manager can contribute towards those goals, and what to do when the resistance to diversity is encountered. Finally, this paper will recommend a comprehensive method of evaluation to ensure the training will create the needed changes. One way to measure the success of diversity initiative is if there are any additional complaints filed with the EEOC, and of the goals or requirements put in place by the EEOC are met. Tracking and evaluating the hiring process and the applicants considered will show the strides or lack of follow through for the organization. Also following the guidelines given and continued follow through with compliance would allow the organization to track and view the changes. Another way to establish if the goals and measures are successful is through looking the amount of promotions if internal candidates. This will show how many employees are taking advantage of the mentoring, employee networking, and diversity training through embracing the goals of the company and making themselves more promotable. â€Å"The organization’s retention rate by demographic group compares favorably with external retention rates.† (Bliss, Keary, Loftus, Outwater, Porter Volpe, 2011). This would show how many minorities had been hired and promoted. An additional measure could also be an employee survey conducted. â€Å"Employee satisfaction survey results by demographic group show the feelings or rates on the diversity in the organization.† (Bliss, et al, 2011). Through seeking the employee input on how they view diversity, training and the inclusive environment, and how successful they feel it is will allow the organization to gage how successful the diversity initiative is and how to continue to build upon it. Finally the organization can look specifically in the diversity of top level managers. â€Å"Consistent with applicable law, representation of minorities and women in positions is enhanced.† (Werner DeSimone, 2012). This would directly look to see how engaged the top level of the company is and the continued support needed to continue to grow the diversity of the organization. Each measurement will allow the organization to understand and en hance the diversity and inclusion strategy. â€Å"Practicing diversity management means operating at a level that is the best with respect to diversity management.† (Werner DeSimone, 2012). This paper outlined a human resources strategic plan that includes the creation of a diversity council of top managers, an additional group of managers to help implement diversity changes, employee network groups, and diversity training for all employees to include managers and frontline staff. This paper focused on specific diversity training segments to address management’s perspectives through establishing a diversity training model for all employees. This paper used Kotter’s eight (8) step change model to persuade management to implement needed modifications to the organizations practices, and proposed a brief ten (10) training outline of diversity content. Finally, this paper recommended a tracking system through the applicant flow log to overview the diversity process as well as a survey for employees to complete to ensure the training will create the needed changes. References Bliss, W., Keary, D., Loftus, J., Outwater, L., Porter, G., Volpe, N., (2011). The SHRM Learning System: Module Three Human Resource Development. Alexandra, VA: Society for Human Resource Management. p. 206-221. Catalyst., (2009, May 13). Workplace Diversity: How to Tackle Resistance. Women’s Media. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://www.womensmedia.com/lead/119-workplace-diversity-how-to-tackle-resistance.html Hewett, A,. (2009). Creating a Sustainable Inclusion Diversity Strategy: Build on Your Company’s Goals and Strengths. Retrieved December 15, 2012 from: http://www.cisco.com/web/about/ac49/ac55/white_paper_Diversity_102709.pdf Jackson, S., (1992) Diversity in the Workplace: Human Resources Initiatives. Guilford Publications. New York, NY. Managing Workplace Diversity Website. (2012). Work Place Diversity Foreword. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://pdtraining.com.au/workplace-diversity-training-course Redvers C., Tennant,C., Neailey, N., (2005) The Development of a Model to Support Synchronous Change. Measuring Business Excellence, Vol. 9 Issue: 3, pp.13 – 20. Werner, J., DeSimone, R. (2012) Human resource development (6th ed.) Mason OH: South Western Cengage Learning Winston, M., (2009). The Importance of Leadership Diversity: The Relationship

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

The History of Advertising :: Advertisements Media Advertising Essays

The History of Advertising Advertising is dated back to the Christian Era. One of the first known methods of advertising was outdoor signs, they would be painted on the wall of a building and were usually very eye catching. Archaeologists have found signs in the ruins of ancient Rome and Pompeii which advertised travelers to go to a tavern situated in another town. In about the 1440's there was an invention of a movable-type of advertising which was a printing press. In the 16th century some companies had a trade mark which was a two or three dimensional picture or sign. In both volume and technique, advertising has made its greatest advances in the U.S. In the early stages of U.S. advertising it was hard and expensive to advertise nationally because the U.S. was still undeveloped and there was little of no means of transport, distribution or communication. Eventually certain type of manufactures thought of the idea of bypassing wholesalers, retailers and using catalogs. Mail orders and pamphlets appeared around the 1870's. Late in the 19th century many American firms began to market packaged goods under brand names. Previously consumers had not been aware of or influenced by brand names. The first product that had brand names were soap products. In the 1880's a few brands came out and they were Ivory, Pears, Sapolio, Colgate, Kirks American Family and Packer's. Not long after brands such as Royal baking powder, Quaker oats, Bakers chocolate, Hire's root beer, Regal shoes and Waterman's pens were nationally advertised. In the early 1900's America began to become aware of such brand names like Bon Ami, Wrigley and Coca-Cola. After World War 1 advertising developed into a business so big that it was almost a trademark of America itself through the eyes of the rest of the world. This was expanded by technical improvements which made transportation, communication and graphics work easier, cheaper and better. The invention of electricity led to the illuminated outdoor poster, photoengraving and other modern printing inventions helped both editorial and advertising departments of printed journals. In the 1920's the radio was invented and this developed a whole new technique of selling, by voice. During World War 2 the American advertising industry founded the war advertising council this used modern advertising to strengthen the American war effort. The organization still continued after the war was over as ‘The Advertising Council' this was used to function for the publics interest. Printed and broadcasted

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Passing-Death of Clare Essay

The death of Clare at the end of Nella Larsen’s Passing though left unclear was, in my opinion, caused by Irene pushing her out of the window. Nella Larsen does not specify what exactly happened, but Irene pushing Clare out of the window seems like the most plausible one. I don’t know whether Larsen intentionally left the ending so abruptly but I just feel as if Irene was the one to kill Clare. Larsen makes this point clear through the phrasing she uses when describing the self-esteem destruction Irene undergoes once Clare has reinserted herself into Irene’s life, and the situations Irene finds herself as a direct result of Clare. Prior to Clare’s reentrance into her life Irene is a self-assured, independent, and confident woman; however, she soon turns self-conscious, dependent, and hesitant. When viewing Clare at the hotel Irene is struck by Clare’s beauty stating, â€Å"She’s really almost too good-looking â€Å"(Larsen 27). The word â€Å"good-looking† shows that Clare is beautiful, however, it is the addition of the word â€Å"too† that indications that Irene feels inferior to Clare’s beauty. Clare embodies beauty, as she is â€Å"too good-looking†. When Clare requests her presence at tea Irene fears Clare will not believe that she had a previous engagement. Larsen writes, â€Å"She was afraid Clare would not believe it† (Larsen 27). It seems foolish that Irene should care what Clare believes of her integrity. Irene’s self-esteem not only continues to deteriorate, but displays of internalized racism begin to present themselves through illogical thought and irrationality. Irene describes Brian in the same way she does Clare as, â€Å"extremely good-looking† (Larsen 77). Irene, does not view herself as â€Å"good-looking†, therefore she believes herself unworthy of Brian an â€Å"extremely good-looking† man, so she assumes Brian and Clare are engaging in an affair. Despite assurances from Brian that he does not view Clare as â€Å"extraordinarily beautiful†, Irene remains convinced that they have engaged in a relationship. As an African-American woman Irene must contend with the ideology that she is not worthy because of her complexion. Clare’s presence in her life forces Irene to face feelings of inferiority. Though Clare is African-American she lives her life as a white woman. Irene no longer views Clare as African-American, but a white woman who threatens her life. White women are believed to be the epitome of beauty, so why would Brian, when presented with the best, not choose the finest option according to society? Larsen writes, â€Å"Irene Redfield wished, for the first time in her life she  had not been born a Negro† (151). Larsen includes the word â€Å"first† to inform readers that Clare is the cause for Irene’s internalized racism. She had never before contemplated what it would be like to have been born of another ethnicity. Clare forces Irene to feel inferior within her own home because she is not white. She is told everyday by society that she is inferior because of her skin color and now because of Clare she must return home and struggle with the knowledge she is not worthy of her husband because she is not white. While Clare never voices her emotions to Irene, she fears Clare; though she never verbalizes this fact Larsen shows it by writing, â€Å"A conviction that the words were intended as a warning took possession of Irene† (Larsen 166). Irene is in her own home, yet she feels Clare somehow â€Å"possessing† her. Larsen creates an image of an innocent person forced into a situation. The word possession implies a lack of choice and that Irene feels lesser. In Irene’s eye Clare is not a woman who passes, but a white woman whose presence in her home threatens the comfort and security of her life. Irene has managed to eradicate all knowledge that Clare is actually a biracial woman â€Å"passing† as white, allowing her to see Clare as she views all white women in society, as threats. Larsen indications this when saying, â€Å"she was aware that, to her, security was the most important and desired thing in life† (169). Towards the end of the book, after Irene runs into John Bellew, she begins to think about Clare and John divorcing. And Larsen writes, â€Å"Then came a thought which she tried to drive away. If Clare should die! Then – Oh, it was too vile! To think, yes, to wish that! She felt faint and sick. But the thought stayed with her. She could not get rid of it† (101). The thoughts that Larsen has Irene thinking makes it seem as if Irene wants Clare dead. If she really cared about her she would never have thought about her dying and if she had for some reason then the thought would not have stayed with her. Later on in the same scene, Larsen writes, â€Å"She turned her face to into her pillow to cry. But no tears came† (101). I think that if Irene really felt bad about her thoughts, she would have cried about it. When Irene finally realized that Clare had died she had so many thoughts in her head. Larsen writes, â€Å"It was an accident, a terrible accident,’ she muttered fiercely. ‘It was† (112). The inclusion of that last line, the italicized â€Å"was† makes it seem as if Irene was trying to reassure herself that it wasn’t her fault. And then she goes on thinking about whether she  should have stayed or not because she knew that people would eventually find her body and ask questions. In a few sentences Larsen establishes that Irene is self-conscious about what Clare will think of her, dependent on the approval of Clare, and hesitant to make a decision for fear of what Clare might choose to believe. Irene’s destruction continues as Clare inserts herself into Irene’s inner circle of family and friends. Irene went from having a good head on her shoulders to becoming a paranoid jealous women; which leads readers to believe that Irene pushed Clare.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Embracing Diversity Challenging Minds - 2946 Words

Breach of duty Breach of duty is defined as when defendant has fallen below the standard of care required by law. Once it has been established that the defendant owed the claimant a duty of care, the claimant must prove that the defendant was in breach of duty. ------------------------------------------------- A breach of duty occurs when defendant has not taken care, i.e. has been negligent. STANDARD OF CARE Breach of duty in negligence liability is decided by the objective test, i.e. the defendant is expected to meet the standard of a reasonable person. This test is from the case of: Vaughan V Menlove The defendants haystack caught fire due to poor ventilation. Defendant had insured it, therefore would lose nothing if it caught†¦show more content†¦On the day of the crash he had also been involved in two minor incidents. Held: defendant was not in breach of duty. To apply an objective standard in a way that did not take into account of D’s condition would be to impose strict liability but that is not the law. c. Professionals and special skills Standard of an ordinary skilled member of the profession. Vowles v Evans (2003) A rugby player was injured as a result of a decision made by the referee. CA said that the degree of care a referee was legally expected to exercise would depend on his grade amp; that of the match he was refereeing.This means that the same accident might amount to a breach of duty if the referee was a trained professional, but not if he was an amateur. Here the referee was a professional amp; was found liable. Gates v Mc Kenna A stage hypnotist was expected to take the precautions that a ‘reasonably careful exponent of stage hypnotism’ would take to prevent psychiatric injury to members of his audience. Watson v Gray (1998) A D professional footballer could only be liable for negligently injuring another player if a reasonable professional footballer would have known that what the D did carried a significant risk of serious injury. d.Different opinion Within a profession or trade there may be difference of opinion as to the best techniques and procedures in any situation . Bolam v Friern Barnet Hospital Management Committee P, a patient was given drugs before electric shockShow MoreRelatedNvq Level 3 Essay779 Words   |  4 PagesChildren’s and Young People’s settings 1.1 Explain what is meant by * Diversity * Equality * Inclusion Diversity basically means difference. Diversity is about understanding that everyone has things in common but also that everyone is different. Diversity is about embracing those differences because if everything and everyone was the same then life would be boaring. 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